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First Opium War - The Righteous Minister - Extra History - #2

第一次鸦片战争——正义的大臣



视频简述:
Opium was illegal in China, but that didn't stop the East India Company from manufacturing it for the black market. The Chinese emperor appointed an official, Lin Zexu, to stop it. He seized and burned huge opium caches held by British merchants, and ultimately ordered the British out of China entirely. Instead, they set up base on a barren island that would become known as Hong Kong.

鸦片在中国是非法的,但这并没有阻止东印度公司替黑市生产鸦片。中国皇帝任命了一位名叫林则徐的官员来阻止这件事。他缴获并烧毁了英国商人持有的大量鸦片,并最终下令要求英国人彻底离开中国。但是,事实上英国人并没有离开,他们在一个后来被称为香港的荒岛上建立了基地。

The tea trade flowing from China had left the British government in staggering debt. They had loaned huge amounts to the Honourable East India Company (EIC) to conquer India, and to pay their debts, the EIC turned that land into poppy fields and manufactured opium in huge quantities. Since China had banned the opium trade, the EIC set up a market in Calcutta (part of their Indian territory) and turned a blind eye to the black market traders who smuggled it into China. By 1839, over 6.6 million pounds of opium were being smuggled into China every year. The Chinese DaoGuang Emperor appointed an upright official named Lin Zexu to halt this opium trade. Lin orchestrated a massive campaign to arrest opium traders, force addicts into rehab, and confiscate pipes. He even laid siege to British warehouses when the merchants refused to turn over their opium supply, instead taking it all by force and burning it. The outraged merchants sought redress from their government, but although the Chief Superintendant Charles Elliot promised them restitution, the government never had any intention of paying them back. Amid the unrest, two British sailors brutally murdered a Chinese man. Lin Zexu demanded their extradition, but Elliot insisted on trying them aboard his ship and sentencing them himself. Lin Zexu had enough. He halted the British food supply and ordered the Portuguese to eject them from Macau. They retreated to a barren island off the coast (now known as Hong Kong). Since the island could not support them, Elliot petitioned the Chinese to sell them food again. He received no response. Then he sent men to collect it directly, but on their way back they were halted by the Chinese navy, and the first engagement of the Opium Wars began.

来自中国的茶叶贸易使英国政府债台高筑。他们向光荣的东印度公司提供了巨额贷款,以征服印度,并偿还债务,东印度公司把这块土地变成了罂粟田,大量生产鸦片。由于中国禁止鸦片贸易,东印度公司在加尔各答(印度领土的一部分)建立了一个市场,对走私鸦片进入中国的黑市商人睁一只眼闭一只眼。到1839年,每年有660多万磅鸦片走私到中国。中国道光皇帝任命了一位名叫林则徐的正直官员来停止鸦片贸易。林策划了一场大规模的运动,逮捕鸦片贩子,强迫吸毒者戒毒,没收烟斗。他甚至包围了英国的仓库,因为商人们拒绝交出他们的鸦片,所以采取了武力夺取并焚烧。愤怒的商人们向他们的政府寻求赔偿,但尽管首席监管官查尔斯·埃利奥特答应给他们赔偿,但其实政府从未打算还他们钱。在动乱中,两名英国水手残忍地杀害了一名中国男子。林则徐要求引渡他们,但埃利奥特坚持在船上审判他们,并亲自宣判。林则徐受够了。他停止了英国的食品供应,并命令葡萄牙人把他们赶出澳门。所以,他们撤退到沿海的一个荒岛上(现在称为香港)。由于岛上无法养活他们,埃利奥特请求中国人再次向他们出售食物。但他没有收到任何答复。然后他派人直接去收集,但是在他们返回的路上被中国海军阻止了,第一次鸦片战争开始了。